Illinois State Library

Illinois Center for the Book


Individual Author Record

General Information

Name:  John S. Haller, Jr.  

Pen Name: John Samuel Haller, Jr., John Haller

Genre:

Born: 1940 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Sites:

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Illinois Connection

Haller was a history professor at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois and as a professor of medical humanities at Southern Illinois University Medical School in Springfield, Illinois.

Biographical and Professional Information

John S. Haller, Jr. held a dual appointment as a professor of history at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale and as a professor of medical humanities at Southern Illinois University Medical School in Springfield, Illinois. At Southern Illinois University in Carbondale he taught courses in American intellectual history and the history of medicine. He also served as past editor of Caduceus, A Journal for the Medical Humanities. Dr. Haller's current research involves nineteenth- and twentieth-century alternative medical systems.


Published Works Expand for more information


Titles At Your Library

Outcasts from Evolution: Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859 - 1900
ISBN: 0809319829

Southern Illinois University Press. 1996

In the only book to date to explore the period between the 1859 publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species and the discovery in 1900 of Gregor Mendel’s experiments in genetics, John S. Haller, Jr., shows the relationship between scientific "conviction" and public policy. He focuses on the numerous liberally educated American scientists who were caught up in the triumph of evolutionary ideas and who sought to apply those ideas to comparative morality, health, and the physiognomy of nonwhite races.

During this period, the natural and social scientists of the day not only accepted without question the genetic and cultural superiority of the Caucasian

they also asserted that the Caucasian race held a monopoly on evolutionary progress, arguing that "inferior races" were no more than evolutionary survivors doomed by their genetic legacy to remain outcasts from evolution.

Hereditarians and evolutionists believed that "less fit" human races were perishing from the rigors of civilization’s struggle and competition. Indeed, racial inferiority lay at the very foundation of the evolutionary framework and, remaining there, rose to the pinnacle of "truth" with the myth of scientific certainty.

The Physician And Sexuality in Victorian America
ISBN: 0393008452

W. W. Norton & Company. 1977

“A highly readable, thoughtful, and detailed study …. No one has yet set the story of Victorian sexuality so firmly in the context of medical history.” ―Journal of American History

“Men and women in late nineteenth-century America,” write John S. Haller and Robin M. Haller, “faced a bewildering and conflicting array of roles forced on them by a newly industrialized society.” Nowhere were these roles more sharply drawn than in the area of sexuality. Growing numbers of Victorians found themselves unable to confide in husbands, wives, or relatives on personal matters. Increasingly, they turned to advice columns in newspapers, etiquette books, philanthropic organizations, marriage manuals, private counselors―and to the physician. The peculiar relationship that existed between the physician and his patient enabled the medical profession to exert a powerful influence: the doctor found himself with the responsibility of acting as the arbiter of fashion, the watchman of morals, and the judge of personal needs. And because the medical profession held itself responsible for the moral and spiritual health of the nation, doctors felt it necessary to bring their professional authority to bear against those elements―such as the women’s rights movement―which threatened the stability of society.

American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910
ISBN: 0252008065

University of Illinois Press. 1981

Haller analyzes the growing pains of American medicine----the conflicts between old and new practices, their resolution, comopromise, or stalemate.

Farmcarts to Fords: A History of the Military Ambulance, 1790-1925 (Medical Humanities Series)
ISBN: 0809318172

Southern Illinois University Press. 1992

This book is the first history of the techniques, systems, and technologies used to evacuate wounded from the battlefield. Historically, the word ambulance described those facilities that provided temporary assistance to the wounded, thus distinguishing them from stationary hospitals where military personnel received more permanent care. Americans and British, however, applied the term to the two-to four-wheeled transport conveyances that carried wounded from the battlefield to the war hospitals.

With the aid of fifty-four illustrations, John S. Haller traces the histories of both meanings of the word from the Napoleonic era through the Great War and its aftermath. He concentrates on the development of British and American evacuation procedures and technology with a focus on hand conveyances and wheeled vehicles. His intent is not to cover all aspects of medical evacuation but to accurately recount the common medical evacuation problems, incongruities, and controversies that existed for warring nations.

Medical Protestants: The Eclectics in American Medicine, 1825-1939 (Medical Humanites)
ISBN: 080933142X

Southern Illinois University Press. 2013

John S. Haller,Jr., provides the first modern history of the Eclectic school of American sectarian medicine.

The Eclectic school (sometimes called the "American School") flourished in the mid-nineteenth century when the art and science of medicine was undergoing a profound crisis of faith. At the heart of the crisis was a disillusionment with the traditional therapeutics of the day and an intense questioning of the principles and philosophy upon which medicine had been built. Many American physicians and their patients felt that medicine had lost the ability to cure. The Eclectics surmounted the crisis by forging a therapeutics based on herbal remedies and an empirical approach to disease, a system independent of the influence of European practices.

Although rejected by the Regulars (adherents of mainstream medicine), the Eclectics imitated their magisterial manner, establishing two dozen colleges and more than sixty-five journals to proclaim the wisdom of their theory. Central to the story of Eclecticism is that of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, the "mother institute" of reform medical colleges. Organized in 1845, the school was to exist for ninety-four years before closing in 1939.

Throughout much of their history, the Eclectic medical schools provided an avenue into the medical profession for men and women who lacked the financial and educational opportunities the Regular schools required, siding with Professor Martyn Paine of the Medical Department of New York University, who, in 1846, had accused the newly formed American Medical Association of playing aristocratic politics behind a masquerade of curriculum reform. Eventually, though, they grudgingly followed the lead of the Regulars by changing their curriculum and tightening admission standards.

By the late nineteenth century, the Eclectics found themselves in the backwaters of modern medicine. Unable to break away from their botanic bias and ill-equipped to support the implications of germ theory, the financial costs of salaried faculty and staff, and the research implications of laboratory science, the Eclectics were pushed aside by the rush of modern academic medicine.

Forging a Medical Practice, 1884-1938 : An Illinois Case Study : Wilber Price Armstrong
ISBN: B002R96ITO

Pearson Museum. 1997

Kindly Medicine: Physio-Medicalism in America, 1836-1911
ISBN: 0873385772

The Kent State University Press. 1997

Between 1836 and 1911, thirteen physio-medical colleges opened, and then closed, their doors.

These authentic American schools, founded on a philosophy of so-called Physio-Medicalism, substituted botanical medicines for allopathy’s mineral drugs and promoted the belief that the human body has an inherent “vital force” that can be used to heal.

In Kindly Medicine, John Haller offers the first complete history of this high-brow branch of botanical medicine.

Physio-Medicalist, along with Thomsonians, Homeopathys, Hydropaths, and Eclectics, represented the earliest wave of medical sectarianism in nineteenth-century America.

United in their opposition to the harsh regimens of allopathy, or regular medicine, these sects had their beginnings in the era of Jacksonian democracy and individualism when every man yearned

to become his own legislator, minister, and even his own physician.

The Physio-Medicals demanded equal rights with regular practitioners to jobs in the army, navy and public institutions and equal representation on the new state licensing and regulatory boards.

As the nineteenth century drew to a close, they saw their influence waning as they could no longer match allopathy’s increasing hold on science and on the public’s trust.

In this history of the movement, John Haller recounts the events that led to the establishment of Physio-Medicalism and traces the circumstances that brought its slow descent into obscurity.

A Profile in Alternative Medicine: The Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati, 1835-1942
ISBN: 0873386108

The Kent State University Press. 1999

The Eclectic Medical Institute was an American institution in origin, concept, and practice. For nearly a century, EMI was known as the “mecca of eclectic thinking” and the “Mother Institute” of reformed medicine. A Profile of Alternative Medicine recounts the history of eclectic medicine which, along with hydropathy, homeopathy, physiomedicalism, chiropractic, and osteopathy, competed with regular medicine (allopathy) in the nineteenth century.

This history of EMI is set within the broader context of American medicine and recounts the internal feuds, successes, adversity, and ultimate failure of this bastion of freedom in medical thought.

The People's Doctor: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement 1790-1860
ISBN: 0809323397

Southern Illinois University Press. 2001

Samuel Thomson, born in New Hampshire in 1769 to an illiterate farming family, had no formal education, but he learned the elements of botanical medicine from a "root doctor," who he met in his youth. Thomson sought to release patients from the harsh bleeding or purging regimens of regular physicians by offering inexpensive and gentle medicines from their own fields and gardens. He melded his followers into a militant corps of dedicated believers, using them to successfully lobby state legislatures to pass medical acts favorable to their cause.

John S. Haller Jr. points out that Thomson began his studies by ministering to his own family. He started his professional career as an itinerant healer traveling a circuit among the small towns and villages of Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Eventually, he transformed his medical practice into a successful business enterprise with agents selling several hundred thousand rights or franchises to his system. His popular New Guide to Health (1822) went through thirteen editions, including one in German, and countless thousands were reprinted without permission.

Told here for the first time, Haller's history of Thomsonism recounts the division within this American medical sect in the last century. While many Thomsonians displayed a powerful, vested interest in anti-intellectualism, a growing number found respectability through the establishment of medical colleges and a certified profession of botanical doctors.

The People's Doctors covers seventy years, from 1790, when Thomson began his practice on his own family, until 1860, when much of Thomson's medical domain had been captured by the more liberal Eclectics. Eighteen halftones illustrate this volume.

The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820-1935
ISBN: 0789026600

CRC Press. 2005

Discover how homeopathic practice developed alongside regular medicine

Explore the history of American homeopathy from its roots in the early nineteenth century, through its burgeoning acceptance, to its subsequent fall from favor. The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820-1935 discusses the development of homeopathy’s unorthodox therapies, the reasons behind its widespread growth and popularity, and its development during medicine’s introspective age of doubt and the emergence of scientific reductionism. Not only does the book explain homeopathy within the same social, scientific, and philosophic traditions that affected other schools of the healing art, but it also promotes a more integrative connection between homeopathy’s unconventional therapeutics and the rigors of scientific medicine.

The History of American Homeopathy examines the work of Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy—the development of his and other practitioners’ theories, and the factors in the growth and later withering of acceptance. You’ll learn the reasons behind homeopathy’s wave of popularity in nineteenth-century America and the impact of regular medicine’s shift to rationalistic system-theories and laboratory science on homeopathy. Discover how homeopathy emerged from the system-theories of the late eighteenth century

the mounting ideological differences within this unorthodox health art

its destructive internal feuds

and the factors that led to the eventual turning over of homeopathies to regular medicine.

The History of American Homeopathy answers questions such as:

  • how did the state of medicine in the early nineteenth century facilitate the public acceptance of Hahnemann’s theories?
  • what were the relationships between regualr medicine and homeopathy?
  • what tensions surfaced between academic and domestic homeopathy?
  • how did homeopathic medical schools emerge, and what were their regional and philosophical distinctions?
  • what was the impact of scientific medicine on homeopathy?
  • what were the reasons for the growing division between the liberal wing of homeopathy and the more conservative Hahnemannians, and what effect did it have on the movement?
The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820-1935 is an informative, insightful exploration of homeopathy’s roots that is valuable for medical historians, history students, homeopaths, alternative medical organizations, holistic healing societies, homeopathic study groups, homeopathic seminars and courses, and anyone interested in homeopathy.

The History of American Homeopathy: From Rational Medicine to Holistic Health Care
ISBN: 0813545838

Rutgers University Press. 2009

Although scorned in the early 1900s and publicly condemned by Abraham Flexner and the American Medical Association, the practice of homeopathy did not disappear. Instead, it evolved with the emergence of holistic healing and Eastern philosophy in the United States and today is a form of alternative medicine practiced by more than 100,000 physicians worldwide and used by millions of people to treat everyday ailments as well as acute and chronic diseases.

The History of American Homeopathy traces the rise of lay practitioners in shaping homeopathy as a healing system and its relationship to other forms of complementary and alternative medicine in an age when conventional biomedicine remains the dominant form. Representing the most current and up-to-date history of American homeopathy, readers will benefit from John S. Haller Jr.'s comprehensive explanation of complementary medicine within the American social, scientific, religious, and philosophic traditions.

Battlefield Medicine: A History of the Military Ambulance from the Napoleonic Wars through World War I (Medical Humanites)
ISBN: 0809330407

Southern Illinois University Press. 2011


In this first history of the military ambulance, historian John S. Haller Jr. documents the development of medical technologies for treating and transporting wounded soldiers on the battlefield. Noting that the word ambulance has been used to refer to both a mobile medical support system and a mode of transport, Haller takes readers back to the origins of the modern ambulance, covering their evolution in depth from the late eighteenth century through World War I.



The rising nationalism, economic and imperial competition, and military alliances and arms races of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries figure prominently in this history of the military ambulance, which focuses mainly on British and American technological advancements. Beginning with changes introduced by Dominique-Jean Larrey during the Napoleonic Wars, the book traces the organizational and technological challenges faced by opposing armies in the Crimean War, the American Civil War, the Franco-Prussian War, and the Philippines Insurrection, then climaxes with the trench warfare that defined World War I. The operative word is "challenges" of medical care and evacuation because while some things learned in a conflict are carried into the next, too often, the spasms of war force its participants to repeat the errors of the past before acquiring much needed insight.

More than a history of medical evacuation systems and vehicles, this exhaustively researched and richly illustrated volume tells a fascinating story, giving readers a unique perspective of the changing nature of warfare in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

The History of New Thought: From Mind Cure to Positive Thinking and the Prosperity Gospel (SWEDENBORG STUDIES)
ISBN: 0877853487

Swedenborg Foundation Publishers. 2012

Anything is yours, if you only want it hard enough. Just think of it. ANYTHING. Try it. Try it in earnest and you will succeed. It is the operation of a mighty Law.

Does that sound like something from the latest spin-off of The Secret? In fact, those words were written in 1900 by William Walter Atkinson, the man who authored the first book on the “Law of Attraction.”


Atkinson was only one of the many and varied personalities that make up the movement known as New Thought. Composed of healers, priests, psychologists, and ordinary people from all levels of society, the proponents of New Thought have one thing in common: a belief in the power of the mind. In The History of New Thought, Haller examines the very beginnings of the movement, its early influences (including Swedish seer Emanuel Swedenborg), and how its initial emphasis on healing disease morphed into a vision of the mind’s ability to bring us whatever we desire.

While most histories of New Thought tend to focus on churches and other formal organizations, Haller reveals that New Thought has had a much broader impact on American culture. Bestselling authors from the late nineteenth century and onward sold books in the millions of copies that were eagerly read and quoted by powerful politicians and wealthy industrialists. The idea that thoughts could become reality is so embedded in American culture that we tell each other to “be positive” without ever questioning why. New Thought has become our thought.

Anyone interested in psychology, popular culture, or history will be fascinated by this exploration of a little-known facet of modern culture.

Joseph Rodes Buchanan: Architect of the Spirit-World, 1814-1899
ISBN: 0615617611

Lloyd Library and Museum. 2012

From John S. Haller, Jr. comes a book-length biography on one of the most colorful figures in Eclectic medicine, the Eclectic Medical Institute, and beyond. Buchanan, a Kentucky native, espoused many radical ideas, including adherence to a belief in Spiritualism, communication with the spirit world, and his advanced theories on the brain/body connection. Haller provides a unique biography on this fascinating 19th-century figure.

The History of American Homeopathy: From Rational Medicine to Holistic Health Care
ISBN: 0813561582

Rutgers University Press. 2013

Although scorned in the early 1900s and publicly condemned by Abraham Flexner and the American Medical Association, the practice of homeopathy did not disappear. Instead, it evolved with the emergence of holistic healing and Eastern philosophy in the United States and today is a form of alternative medicine practiced by more than 100,000 physicians worldwide and used by millions of people to treat everyday ailments as well as acute and chronic diseases.

The History of American Homeopathy traces the rise of lay practitioners in shaping homeopathy as a healing system and its relationship to other forms of complementary and alternative medicine in an age when conventional biomedicine remains the dominant form. Representing the most current and up-to-date history of American homeopathy, readers will benefit from John S. Haller Jr.'s comprehensive explanation of complementary medicine within the American social, scientific, religious, and philosophic traditions.

Shadow Medicine: The Placebo in Conventional and Alternative Therapies by John S. Haller Jr. (2014-07-08)
ISBN: B01K3L5G9A

Columbia University Press. 1788

The Mount Lebanon Hallers: A Family History
ISBN: 1497426472

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2014

Nice people who came Germany in the 19th Century. Energetic descendants. Some brilliant. Some wacko. All decent. Catholic. Prolific. Extraordinarily successful in commerce and avoiding imprisonment and the gallows, to date.

The Nolan Family History
ISBN: 1505539048

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2015

As Irish as Paddy's pig and as Catholic as the pope, the Nolans bid goodby to everyone and everything they knew and, trusting in their God and crew of the ship they boarded, crossed the cold dark North Atlantic to an unknown future in America.

The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820-1935
ISBN: 1535436115

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2015

Explore the history of American homeopathy from its roots in the early nineteenth century, through its burgeoning acceptance, to its subsequent fall from favor. This book discusses the development of homeopathy's unorthodox therapies, the reasons behind its widespread growth and popularity, and its development during medicine's introspective age of doubt and the emergence of scientific reductionism. This edition is a reprint of the out-of-print 2005 edition.

Samuel Thomson and the Poetry of Botanic Medicine, 1810-1860
ISBN: 1541338618

CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. 2016

This particular collection of poetry concerns the development of the botanical medical sect known as Thomsonism, and its founder, Samuel Thomson (1769-1843). Beginning his professional career as an itinerant healer traveling a circuit among the small towns and villages of Maine , New Hampshire , and Massachusetts , Thomson transformed his medical practice into a successful business enterprise whose agents and sub-agents sold several hundred thousand patent-rights to his system of practice, along with an even greater number of books, and tons of botanical medicines. Over a period of several decades, Thomson melded his followers into a militant corps of dedicated believers, using them to successfully lobby state legislatures to pass medical acts favorable to their cause. He authorized agencies, infirmaries, and medicine depots in every state and territory

organized the first national convention of botanic healers fifteen years before the American Medical Association could muster its own corps of regular doctors

and popularized a distinctive "course" of medicine that became the regimen of choice for families in every part of the country. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Thomsonism became a household word for several millions of people. Unlike the more standard poetry of the day, the poetry of Thomson's botanic reformers was written predominantly by men and intended mainly for medical purposes rather than for any moral, ethical, or pious objectives. In many instances, it even served as a vehicle for medical instruction, teaching families in mnemonic fashion how to monitor sickness and proceed with a course of medicine. His poems carried anti-elitist messages against lawyers, priests, and doctors

attacks against agents who betrayed him

recollections of past humiliations

and simplified explanations of his system of medicine.


Awards

-- Outcasts From Evolution

Anisfeild-Wolf Award in Race Relations, 1971